High blood tension dangers: Hypertension’s outcomes on your system

High blood tension is a possibility component for more than heart sickness. Learn what troubles significant blood tension can bring about.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

High blood tension (hypertension) can quietly hurt the system for years prior to indications acquire. Uncontrolled significant blood tension can guide to disability, a poor top quality of daily life, or even a deadly heart assault or stroke.

Procedure and way of life variations can assistance manage significant blood tension to lessen the possibility of daily life-threatening troubles.

Hurt to the arteries

Healthy arteries are adaptable, powerful and elastic. Their internal lining is smooth so that blood flows freely, giving critical organs and tissues with vitamins and minerals and oxygen.

High blood tension (hypertension) progressively boosts the tension of blood flowing as a result of the arteries. Hypertension could bring about:

  • Damaged and narrowed arteries. High blood tension can hurt the cells of the arteries’ internal lining. When fats from the diet program enter the bloodstream, they can accumulate in the broken arteries. At some point, the artery partitions turn out to be fewer elastic, restricting blood flow throughout the system.
  • Aneurysm. About time, the consistent tension of blood shifting as a result of a weakened artery can bring about a area of its wall to enlarge and sort a bulge (aneurysm). An aneurysm can possibly rupture and bring about daily life-threatening inside bleeding. Aneurysms can sort in any artery, but they are most frequent in the body’s most significant artery (aorta).

Hurt to the heart

High blood tension can bring about numerous heart issues, such as:

  • Coronary artery sickness. Arteries narrowed and broken by significant blood tension have difficulty giving blood to the heart. Far too minimal blood flow to the heart can guide to chest ache (angina), irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) or a heart assault.
  • Enlarged still left heart. High blood tension forces the heart to perform more difficult to pump blood to the rest of the system. This triggers the decrease still left heart chamber (still left ventricle) to thicken. A thickened still left ventricle boosts the possibility of heart assault, heart failure and unexpected cardiac death.
  • Heart failure. About time, the strain on the heart prompted by significant blood tension can bring about the heart muscle mass to weaken and perform fewer competently. At some point, the overwhelmed heart starts to fail.

Hurt to the brain

The brain is dependent on a nourishing blood offer to perform effectively. High blood tension could impact the brain in the following techniques:

  • Transient ischemic assault (TIA). At times termed a ministroke, a TIA is a brief, momentary disruption of blood offer to the brain. Hardened arteries or blood clots prompted by significant blood tension can bring about TIA. TIA is normally a warning sign of a comprehensive-blown stroke.
  • Stroke. A stroke happens when part of the brain isn’t going to get more than enough oxygen and vitamins and minerals, triggering brain cells to die. Blood vessels broken by significant blood tension can narrow, rupture or leak. High blood tension can also bring about blood clots to sort in the arteries top to the brain, blocking blood flow and possibly triggering a stroke.
  • Dementia. Narrowed or blocked arteries can restrict blood flow to the brain, top to a specific style of dementia (vascular dementia). A stroke that interrupts blood flow to the brain can also bring about vascular dementia.
  • Mild cognitive impairment. This affliction is a changeover phase involving the variations in knowing and memory that typically occur with getting older and the more-serious issues prompted by dementia. Research counsel that significant blood tension can guide to gentle cognitive impairment.

Hurt to the kidneys

Kidneys filter extra fluid and waste from the blood — a system that necessitates nutritious blood vessels. High blood tension can hurt the blood vessels in and top to the kidneys. Getting diabetic issues in addition to significant blood tension can worsen the hurt.

Kidney issues prompted by significant blood tension consist of:

  • Kidney scarring (glomerulosclerosis). This style of kidney hurt happens when little blood vessels in the kidney turn out to be scarred and not able to proficiently filter fluid and waste from the blood. Glomerulosclerosis can guide to kidney failure.
  • Kidney failure. High blood tension is one of the most frequent triggers of kidney failure. Damaged blood vessels prevent kidneys from proficiently filtering waste from the blood, letting harmful amounts of fluid and waste to accumulate. Procedure could consist of dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Hurt to the eyes

High blood tension can hurt the little, fragile blood vessels that offer blood to the eyes, triggering:

  • Hurt to the blood vessels in the retina (retinopathy). Hurt to the blood vessels in the light-delicate tissue at the back of the eye (retina) can guide to bleeding in the eye, blurred eyesight and comprehensive loss of eyesight. Getting diabetic issues in addition to significant blood tension raise the possibility of retinopathy.
  • Fluid buildup beneath the retina (choroidopathy). Choroidopathy can final result in distorted eyesight or often scarring that impairs eyesight.
  • Nerve hurt (optic neuropathy). Blocked blood flow can hurt the optic nerve, top to bleeding in the eye or eyesight loss.

Sexual dysfunction

The incapacity to have and preserve an erection (erectile dysfunction) gets to be ever more frequent in gentlemen as they attain age fifty. But gentlemen with significant blood tension are even more probably to working experience erectile dysfunction. That’s due to the fact restricted blood flow prompted by significant blood tension can block blood from flowing to the penis.

Women of all ages could also working experience sexual dysfunction as a final result of significant blood tension. Lessened blood flow to the vagina can guide to a reduce in sexual wish or arousal, vaginal dryness, or issue attaining orgasm.

High blood tension emergencies

High blood tension is ordinarily a chronic affliction that progressively triggers hurt in excess of years. But often blood tension rises so swiftly and seriously that it gets to be a healthcare crisis necessitating speedy therapy, normally with hospitalization.

In these circumstances, significant blood tension can bring about:

  • Blindness
  • Upper body ache
  • Troubles in being pregnant (preeclampsia or eclampsia)
  • Heart assault
  • Memory loss, persona variations, difficulty concentrating, irritability or progressive loss of consciousness
  • Intense hurt to the body’s key artery (aortic dissection)
  • Stroke
  • Sudden impaired pumping of the heart, top to fluid backup in the lungs resulting in shortness of breath (pulmonary edema)
  • Sudden loss of kidney function


Get the most up-to-date well being data from Mayo Clinic’s professionals.

Signal up for free, and keep up to date on study enhancements, well being ideas and latest well being topics, like COVID-19, plus knowledge on controlling well being.

To offer you with the most applicable and valuable data, and have an understanding of which
data is beneficial, we could merge your e-mail and internet site use data with
other data we have about you. If you are a Mayo Clinic affected person, this could
consist of shielded well being data. If we merge this data with your shielded
well being data, we will address all of that data as shielded well being
data and will only use or disclose that data as established forth in our detect of
privateness techniques. You could decide-out of e-mail communications at any time by clicking on
the unsubscribe link in the e-mail.